Industry sources report that within the next year or so, COMPAQ COMPUTER CORP.'s subsidiary will assemble locally all of its products targeted at the corporate market in Japan rather than import them from Singapore. Sales to business buyers represented roughly 70 percent of the 450,000 or so units that the company shipped in 1999. Local production on a build-to-order basis will start this summer with the Deskpro line of corporate desktop machines, followed late this year by the ProLiant/Prosignia series of servers and then the Armada family of corporate notebooks. This sourcing shift had been expected to take place soon after the October 1998 merger of Digital Equipment Corp.'s subsidiary into Compaq's since DEC had a recently renovated plant in suburban Tokyo. The switch did not occur at the time presumably because production in Japan is more expensive than in Singapore. However, Compaq now apparently has decided that the big cut in delivery times made possible through local BTO production is worth the higher costs, which, in any case, will be passed on to corporate buyers.
The only products that COMPAQ COMPUTER CORP. will continue to import are its home-oriented Presario desktop and notebook systems since buyers rarely want them customized. Starting this month, Presario PCs can be ordered from Compaq DirectPlus, the company's on-line store. Until now, these models have been available only at stores through an exclusive distribution deal with CANON SALES CO., INC. The addition of Presarios to Compaq DirectPlus means that all the company's servers and corporate and consumer desktop and notebook PCs can be bought through the Internet. This marketing channel generated about 5 percent of Compaq's 1999 volume. It is gunning to raise this figure to as much as 15 percent in 2000.
Add three more names to the already extensive list of firms that have decided that it is cost-effective over the long run to outsource responsibility for their computer systems to IBM JAPAN LTD. One of the latest converts is DAISHI BANK, LTD., a Niigata prefecture regional bank. Starting in April, IBM Japan through the local unit of its parent's IBM Global Services group will take over operation of the bank's IT systems under a 10-year deal worth about $270.2 million. Major candy and snack food maker MEIJI SEIKA KAISHA, LTD. also decided to hand over to IBM Japan management and maintenance of the computer system that it uses for production planning and accounting. The company figures that the five-year outsourcing agreement will save it as much as $917,400 annually. For its part, PIA CORP., a ticket distributor and publisher, contracted with IBM Japan to handle systems development and management from this spring. As part of the arrangement, the computer giant will integrate Pia's existing equipment using IBM hardware and software.
IBM JAPAN LTD. should get some help this summer in handling its bigger outsourcing business. Under a tentative agreement with MITSUBISHI CORP., the two will share responsibility for running the data center owned by the trader's IT COMMERCE CORP. subsidiary. This will enable IBM Japan to shift some of its existing accounts over to this facility, freeing resources at its own nearby data center to manage the IT requirements of new clients. The Mitsubishi-IBM Japan relationship also will include cooperation in the areas of sales, planning and systems development.
In a move designed to upgrade technical support for users of its Netfinity PC servers, IBM JAPAN LTD.'s Web site will be deployed to troubleshoot problems. On it, the company will post 6,000-plus pieces of information culled from a data base of responses to questions asked of its parent's worldwide customer service departments. In most cases, IBM Japan hopes, users of the system can get step-by-step instructions for resolving problems once a description of them is entered. Responses via e-mail also will be available. The company thinks that the new service will be more effective than support via a help desk because of the frequent difficulty of explaining in detail the technical problems that servers encounter.
Under their recently announced e-business/net-working collaboration (see Japan-U.S. Business Report No. 365, February 2000, p. 15), the subsidiaries of INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORP. and CISCO SYSTEMS, INC. will offer services to small and midsize customers in addition to members of corporate Japan, their original focus. The menu is much the same for the two groups of companies, centering on systems construction and support. The main difference is on the hardware side. For small and midsize firms, IBM JAPAN LTD. and Cisco Systems are promoting the Netfinity PC server and the networking equipment leader's firewall-equipped desktop routers. For big firms, they are pairing IBM's S/390 mainframe-cum-Web-server with Cisco Systems' high-end networking equipment.
In a tie-up that should help DELL COMPUTER CORP.'s subsidiary extend its market reach from the office to the factory floor, it and YOKOGAWA ELECTRIC CORP. will offer systems integration services to manufacturers interested in improving efficiency by combining their production, information and management systems. Dell brings to this endeavor not only its lineup of PCs and servers but also its integration expertise. Industrial automation leader YEC, which has made expansion of IT services a prime business objective, affords access to a large customer base. To be supported by a dedicated team at each company, the partnership is scheduled to be launched this spring.
DELL COMPUTER CORP.'s marketing unit has a new way to reach Japan's vast number of small and midsize companies. It was named the exclusive computer supplier for NTT DATA OFFICE MART CORP.'s orderit membership office-supply site. When any of the 12,000 or so member firms click on the PC icon on the orderit home page, they will be linked to a special Dell site. Until now, equipment from a number of computer manufacturers was available on orderit, but NTT Data Office Mart decided to go with one maker to facilitate delivery and service.
Two of Japan's top PC distributors CANON SALES CO., INC. and DAIWABO INFORMATION SYSTEM CO., LTD. will market HEWLETT-PACK-ARD JAPAN LTD.'s all-in-one OmniBook XE2 (see Japan-U.S. Business Report No. 364, January 2000, p. 15) and its high-end OmniBook 4150 notebook computer. The company decided to abandon its direct sales approach for these two products in the hope of making headway in the corporate market. That, in turn, is related to its goal of ranking among the 10 largest notebook sellers by 2002. Despite handing over the two models, HP Japan will work closely with Canon Sales and Daiwabo Information System in devising marketing, sales and advertising strategies.
IBM JAPAN LTD. has released more details about its plans for the subsidiary of SEQUENT COMPUTER SYSTEMS, INC., now an INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORP. company (see Japan-U.S. Business Report No. 364, January 2000, p. 14). This month, IBM Japan will form a Web server unit by combining its Unix server division with the local operations of Sequent, a leader in systems based on the NUMA (non-uniform memory access) architecture. It allows large numbers of processors (up to 64 in the case of the Beaverton, Oregon company's products) to operate as a single system while being relatively easy to program and manage. IBM Japan plans to market for e-business applications Unix servers that incorporate Sequent's technology. These machines also will be the platforms for the implementation of Project Monterey, an IBM-led initiative to develop a high-volume, enterprise-ready commercial Unix operating system that supports both the IBM and the Intel architectures.
In the meantime, IBM JAPAN LTD. added to its Unix-based RS/6000 family of 64-bit RISC (reduced instruction-set computing) workstations and servers the first models featuring the new POWER3-II processor with its heat-lowering, performance-improving copper interconnects. The entry-level RS/6000 44P Model 170 workstation, priced from just $25,600, uses the 400-MHz version of the chip. It comes with 256 MB of system memory expandable to 2 GB, 9.1 GB of storage capacity that can be boosted to 72.8 GB, plus two 64-bit PCI (peripheral component interconnect) slots and four 32-bit PCI slots. For more demanding CAD/CAM (computer-aid design and manufacturing) functions, IBM Japan has the RS/6000 44P Model 270 workstation, which can handle one to four 375-MHz POWER3-II processors. All four configurations can be equipped with anywhere from 256 MB of internal memory to 8 GB shared and a disk drive capacity of 9.1 GB to 54.6 GB. A pair of 64-bit PCI slots and three 32-bit PCI slots are standard. Pricing for this model starts at $32,000. The top-of-the-line RS/6000 SP server also is available with up to four 375-MHz POWER3-II processors for $107,300 and up.
Returning to the price-sensitive part of the Unix workstation market, HEWLETT-PACKARD CO. introduced worldwide the HP VISUALIZE B2000. Targeted at cost-conscious electronic design automation and mechanical design automation engineers and designers, the workstation features the new HP VISUALIZE fxe three-dimensional graphics subsystem. Its power comes from a 400-MHz version of HP's PA-8500 RISC processor. HEWLETT-PACKARD JAPAN LTD. priced the HP VISUALIZE B2000 at $11,700. As with similar products, it is supplying the system on an original equipment manufacturer basis to HITACHI, LTD. and OKI ELECTRIC INDUSTRY CO., LTD.
Strengthening its lineup in the expanding Windows/Intel workstation and server markets as well as in their Unix counterparts, IBM JAPAN LTD. rolled out new IntelliStation workstation and Netfinity 5000 server models. The high-end IntelliStation Z Pro now is available with a 733-MHz Pentium III Xeon processor for $5,500 or an 800-MHz version of this engine for $12,700. The former comes standard with 256 MB of PC 600 direct Rambus DRAM memory, a 9.1-GB hard drive spinning at 10,000 rpm and an ELSA GLoria II graphics accelerator, while the latter ships with 512 MB of PC 600 RDRAM, a 10,000-rpm 18.2-GB hard drive and Intense-3D Wildcat 4110 graphics. For technical users on a tighter budget, IBM Japan introduced new Pentium III-equipped IntelliStation M Pro products starting at $3,700. At the same time, the company made the Netfinity 5000 server family more powerful by adding models that run off the 650- MHz and the 700-MHz versions of the Pentium III processor. These Windows NT Server 4.0 products are priced at $4,500 and $5,000, respectively.
ISPs and data center operators trying to fit ever-increasing numbers of servers into their facilities are the target buyers for IBM JAPAN LTD.'s rack-optimized Netfinity 4000R server. Measuring just 1.75 inches thick, 42 of these units can be stacked in an industry-standard rack. One or two Pentium III processors running at either 650 MHz or 750 MHz power this model, which has 18.2 GB of disk storage. A Netfinity 4000R with a pair of 750-MHz Pentium IIIs starts at $9,100.
COMPAQ COMPUTER CORP. merged its two server brands, dropping the Prosignia label and keeping the ProLiant name. To mark this switch, it introduced three products in the new, expansion-oriented ProLiant ML line. The entry-level ProLiant ML350, the replacement for the ProLiant 800 and the Prosignia Server 740, is aimed at growing small and midsize businesses looking for a value-priced server. Starting at $3,700, it uses either a 600-MHz or a 733-MHz Pentium III. The ProLiant ML370, the next generation of the ProLiant 1600 and 1600R, is designed for remote and branch office requirements. It offers the choice of a 667-MHz or a 733-MHz Pentium III. For companies needing speed, extensive scalability and high- availability features, Compaq is marketing the ProLiant ML530 as the follow-on to the ProLiant 3000 and 3000R. This system can draw on the power of two 800-MHz Pentium IIIs.
Beefing up its presence in the departmental server market, DELL COMPUTER CORP.'s subsidiary introduced the new PowerEdge 4400. This system provides improved availability through redundant, hot- plug-gable components and support for RAID (redundant array of independent disks). On the performance and scalability sides, the PowerEdge 4400 supports up to two Pentium III Xeon processors operating at 600 MHz to 800 MHz with a 133-MHz front-side bus, 128 MB to 4 GB of 133-MHz SDRAM memory and 9 GB or 18 GB of high-performance storage. The base configuration of the PowerEdge 4400 lists for $4,600.
The answer from DELL COMPUTER CORP. to both the space constraints of ISPs and data center managers and their requirements for performance and uptime is the PowerEdge 2450. This rack- mountable, dual processor-capable server is 3.5 inches high. Twenty-one of them therefore can fit in a seven-foot rack. If each has the maximum 91 GB of internal storage, the user has as much as 2 terabytes of capacity available. Performance is provided via Pentium III processors operating at 600 MHz to 733 MHz, plus as much as 2 GB of system memory. PowerEdge 2450 pricing begins at $3,300.
According to calculations by HEWLETT-PACK-ARD JAPAN LTD., the combination of performance and reliability delivered by the new HP NetServer LH 3000/3000r will enable it to sell 25,000 of these departmental servers in a year. The system can be configured with one or two Pentium III processors running at 600 MHz all the way up to 933 MHz, each with a 133-MHz front-side bus. Performance is bolstered by 133-MHz SDRAM internal memory. To ensure availability, the $8,100 and up HP NetServer LH 3000/3000r comes with hot-swappable/hot-pluggable disk drives and other components.
The corporate desktop market in Japan is hot and, like their Japanese counterparts, American PC suppliers are rolling out new products one after the other to exploit this demand. A number of these models are the launch vehicles for the Windows 2000 Professional operating system. For instance, world industry leader COMPAQ COMPUTER CORP. has installed the new operating system in at least one model in its four Deskpro lines: the value-oriented Deskpro EP Series, the performance-geared Deskpro EN Series Desktop for connected offices, the Deskpro EN Series Small Form Factor and the Deskpro EN Series Minitower. At a minimum, these machines, which start as low as $2,000, come with a 600-MHz Pentium III processor, 128 MB of internal memory and 10 GB of disk capacity.
For IBM JAPAN LTD., the Windows 2000 Professional launch model is part of the company's mainstream PC 300GL series, which now can run off Pentium III processors up to 800 MHz with a 133-MHz front-side bus. The Windows 2000-ready PC 300GL Model 6564, a tower design, lists for $2,600.
In quick order, the subsidiary of direct marketer GATEWAY, INC. expanded its new Select family of performance-oriented yet value-priced desktop PCs upwards. At the heart of the line is the Athlon chip with Enhanced 3DNOW! technology from ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES, INC. (see Japan-U.S. Business Report No. 365, February 2000, p. 16). As its name suggests, the Select 850 is powered by a 850-MHz implementation of the processor. It comes with 128 MB of system memory, 20 GB of disk storage and a 19-inch monitor for just $1,900.
HEWLETT-PACKARD JAPAN LTD. is trying to capitalize on the strength of the corporate PC market by selling through its on-line Business Store nine low-price HP Vectra models. The entry-level product, the HP Vectra VLi7, costs as little as $730 without a monitor. That buys a machine with a 500-MHz Celeron processor, 64 MB of internal memory and an 8.4-GB hard drive. The line's four HP Vectra VLi8 models have the same memory and disk capacity but offer additional features, such as integrated LAN (local area network) capability, a 600E-MHz Pentium III processor and, in the high-end, roughly $1,400 model, Windows NT 4.0. Rounding out this series is the HP e-Vectra, the first products in HEWLETT-PACKARD CO.'s new family of e-PCs. These modular machines, which have a removable hard drive, power supply and chassis, are one-fifth the size of traditional desktop PCs. Ranging in price from $815 to almost $1,200 (without a monitor), the HP eVectra PCs offer a choice of a 500-MHz or a 533-MHz Celeron or a 600EB- MHz Pentium III and 64 MB or 128 MB of system memory; an 8.4-GB hard drive is standard. The high-end HP e-Vectra comes preloaded with Windows 2000.
The three-model Optiplex GC series is DELL COMPUTER CORP.'s latest entry in the space-saving corporate market. Designed for networked environments, these products have an ultrathin chassis that is claimed to be 38 percent thinner than today's slim chassis. Inside is either a Celeron processor running at up to 500 MHz or a Pentium III with speeds as fast as 800 MHz combined with an 810E chipset, plus SDRAM or RDRAM memory expandable up to 512 MB. An Optiplex GC model equipped with a 500-MHz Celeron costs just under $1,100.
DELL COMPUTER CORP. also hopes that a space-saving design and cut-rate pricing will help it make headway in the SOHO and home markets. Its subsidiary is offering the Japan-only Dimension J433c desktop machine with a 433-MHz Celeron processor for just $595 excluding a monitor and the similarly localized Inspiron C433ST notebook, which uses the mobile version of the same chip, for only $1,600.
Chief rival COMPAQ COMPUTER CORP. also is deploying the pricing weapon to build sales in the home market. Its stylish Presario 3500 Series of desktop PCs costs as little as $730 without a monitor for a system powered by a 466-MHz Celeron processor, although the line extends up the performance ladder to a machine with a 550-MHz Pentium III and a CD-RW drive. For the mobile computer user, Compaq rolled out the all-in-one Presario 1600 Series for people interested in performance, which is delivered via mobile Celeron or mobile Pentium III processors, a 14.1-inch TFT LCD display and a DVD-ROM drive. For budget- conscious buyers, it introduced the Presario 1200 Series, which uses a 475-MHz version of the AMD-K6- 2 engine and comes with a 13-inch TFT LCD display. All of the new Presario models feature Compaq's Internet-access button. It instantly links users to the home pages of 11 local content providers.
Demanding professionals can access the benefits of the Windows 2000 Professional operating system in the office or on the road if they have IBM JAPAN LTD.'s new ThinkPad 600X. This 5-pound notebook uses the latest mobile Pentium III processors with SpeedStep technology and provides 64 MB of SDRAM expandable to 576 MB, a 12-GB hard disk drive and a 13.3-inch TFT LCD display with XGA resolution. Pricing of the ThinkPad 600X starts at $3,900. The new Windows operating system also is preloaded with the ThinkPad 570E. This $3,400 and up portable capitalizes on a 500-MHz mobile Pentium III processor, 64 MB to 320 MB of SDRAM, 12 GB of storage and the same display as the ThinkPad 600E.
COMPAQ COMPUTER CORP. enhanced the performance of two members of its Armada line of commercial notebooks the ultraportable Armada M300 and the all-in-one Armada E500. The former, which supports the Microsoft 2000 Professional operating system, now is powered by a 500-MHz mobile Pentium III processor and includes a 12-GB hard drive and a 11.3-inch XGA TFT display. The latter draws on the performance features of the 450-MHz implementation of the mobile Pentium III chip. Equipped with 64 MB of RAM, a 12-GB hard drive and a 14.1-inch TFT LCD, the Armada E500 goes for $2,500.
Under a multiyear OEM contract, NETWORK COMPUTING DEVICES, INC. is developing and manufacturing thin-client terminals for HITACHI, LTD. Targeted at the ASP market, the FLORANET 130 is based on the Mountain View, California company's ThinSTAR 400 Windows-based terminal. This product uses a 166-MHz Pentium MMX processor and provides 32 MB of internal memory expandable to 288 MB. It also includes a pair of serial ports, one parallel port, two USB ports and 16-bit audio input/output. A localized version of NCD's ThinPATH Management Service operating system ships with the FLORANET 130. Hitachi already is selling the thin client for Windows NT server environments, but it will make a major marketing push now that Windows 2000 has been launched in Japan. The Japanese manufacturer said that it chose NCD's product because of its small footprint, manageability features and interoperability with Hitachi servers.
While most PC manufacturers were tweaking their hardware or marketing strategies, an on-the-roll-in- Japan APPLE COMPUTER, INC. was unveiling in Tokyo new iBook, PowerBook and Power Mac G4 lines for the world market. The revamped iBook portable for the personal user has double the memory (64 MB) and twice the storage capacity (6 GB) of its predecessor, but the price is the same $1,800 for these blueberry and tangerine models with their 300-MHz PowerPC G3 processor. Apple also used the occasion to debut the $2,000 iBook Special Edition, which uses a 366-MHz processor and comes in a graphite-color enclosure. The new PowerBook portables for the business user incorporate faster PowerPC G3 processors. About $2,700 will buy a system with a 400-MHz chip, 64 MB of internal memory and a 6-GB hard drive. For roughly $1,000 more, professionals can get what Apple claims is the fastest portable ever. This PowerBook uses a 500-MHz PowerPC G3 processor. It also provides 128 MB of system memory and 12 GB of storage capacity. Both new PowerBook models feature as well up to 10 hours of battery life and two built-in FireWire (IEEE 1394) ports. For desktop customers, Apple beefed up the performance of the Power Mac G4 line with Velocity Engine-equipped PowerPC G4 processors running at 400 MHz, 450 MHz and 500 MHz. These machines range in price from $1,800 to $3,900. According to Apple's calculations, it had 7.8 percent of Japan's PC-like market in last year's fourth quarter, making it number four. The company attributed its gain mostly to the popularity of the iBook and the iMac home desktop computer.
In a deal that could extend its business from desktop products to the portable market, big magnetic recording head manufacturer READ-RITE CORP. has a contract with FUJITSU, LTD. to develop advanced GMR (giant magneto-resistive) recording heads for 2.5-inch disk drives used in laptop computers. The storage requirements of this market will showcase the Milpitas, California firm's breakthroughs in areal density by packing more data into a square inch of platter space. Read-Rite already has shipped samples of its GMR heads to Fujitsu, which is one of the world leaders in 2.5-inch drives for portables.
The first of TROIKA NETWORKS, INC.'s innovative Fibre Channel solutions for managing the burden that e-commerce and e-business put on the corporate data-storage infrastructure is available through NIS- SHO ELECTRONICS CORP. (see Japan-U.S. Business Report No. 362, November 1999, p. 18). The SAN2 Controller 2000 is a PCI-to-Fibre Channel adapter that enables network managers to support and administer storage area networks and/or what the Westlake Village, California supplier calls system area networks with a single device. Nissho Electronics priced the Troika Networks board at $5,000. It is projecting first-year sales of this and other products from the start-up at $917,400.
The seemingly insatiable demand for storage capacity in today's increasingly networked corporate world is creating a ready market in Japan for what are called network-attached storage devices. The latest company attempting to exploit this demand is disk-drive maker MAXTOR CORP. It named NISSHO ELECTRONICS CORP. and NEWTECH CO., LTD. to distribute its MaxAttach NAS server appliances. They plug directly into the network in less than 10 minutes, according to the Milpitas, California company, and can be easily managed, configured and administered via a Web browser. Equally important, Maxtor says, MaxAttach devices, which offer 18 GB to 72 GB of storage, maintain fast response times despite increases in traffic. Nissho Electronics priced the appliance at $1,700. It is forecasting yearly sales of 10,000 MaxAttach devices and accompanying ReflectIt automatic backup and instantaneous data-mirroring software.
PROCOM TECHNOLOGY INC., which bills itself as a pioneer in the development of NAS technology, also jumped into Japan's market for this appliance. The Santa Ana, California company tapped TECHNOGRAPHY INC., a Tokyo-based provider of storage solutions, to resell and support the full line of NetFORCE products. Among their touted benefits is built-in software support for kanji, which enables users to set up and manage the devices in Japanese. Others include NetFORCE's seamless integration into all major networking environments and fault tolerance.
Like several of its American PC rivals, GATEWAY, INC. has moved into the enterprise storage market. The first product offered by its subsidiary is the $3,500 DataStation 8-U2 device for use with the company's high-end ALR servers. The external system stores 288 GB of data. Three of them can be linked together for a theoretical capacity of 864 GB. The data transfer rate is a brisk 80 megabits per second. The DataStation 8-U2 also incorporates a number of high-availability features, such as dual swappable power supplies.
The marketing arm of IMATION CORP. one of the developers of the SuperDisk, which holds 120 MB of data on a 3.5-inch diskette released a USB-compatible version of its SuperDisk drive for machines running Windows 98 and Windows 2000 as well as recent versions of the Macintosh operating system. Like similar Imation products, the SDD-120USBSL-B/T can read conventional 3.5-inch floppies along with high-capacity SuperDisks and at much faster speeds than floppy drives. The blueberry- or tangerine-color drive lists for $265.
In a major endorsement of its flash-based local storage solutions for the Internet appliance market, M-SYS- TEMS FLASH DISK PIONEERS LTD.'s DiskOnChip is part of the INFOX terminal commercialized by TOSHIBA TEC CORP., the top Japanese supplier of point-of-sale systems to supermarkets and convenience stores. The INFOX terminal is an integrated e-commerce system designed to handle card- credit, debit-card, IC-card and other types of payments at retailers participating in NTT DATA CORP.'s INFOX-NET network service. Newark, California-based M-Systems' DiskOnChip serves as the INFOX terminal's Windows CE boot device and provides local storage of such files as systems applications, drivers and credit transaction data. It also stores the INFOX's built-in TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/Internet Protocol) networking feature used to connect with the NTT Data network.
Two U.S. companies that specialize in putting any type of digital content graphics, photos, sound or video on CDs or the like that are the size of business cards are stepping up efforts in Japan in support of this new marketing tool. The local office of SQUARECD INC., which first offered CD-ROM business cards and then this message-sending medium on recordable CDs, is taking orders for DVD-ROM business cards. The SquareDVD, expected to cost $7.35 each, has a 400-MB capacity. The orders are filled at SquareCD's Keizer, Oregon plant, which can turn out 500,000 DVD cards a month. For its part, IACCESS.COM is marketing through its subsidiary the CD-ROM iAccessCard. This spring, the Bluffdale, Utah company also will offer its product as a DVD-ROM. Both SquareCD and iAccess.com will create multimedia sales, training and other material for clients or use customers' presentations.
In its latest diversification, COMPAQ COMPUTER CORP.'s marketing arm introduced a hardware-based solution that addresses the system throughput and performance bottlenecks created as secure servers handle more and more transactions encrypted according to the SSL (secure socket layer) protocol to ensure privacy and security over the Internet. The Compaq AXL200 Accelerator PCI Card tackles this problem by offloading all the compute-intensive exponentiation processing required by the SSL protocol. That frees servers to run primary business applications, whether home banking, on-line stock trading or e- commerce purchases.
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