No. 9 — March 3, 2000


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COPDAB Scale of International Cooperation and Conflict*

1. (92) Voluntary unification of separate states into one nation.

2. (47) Major strategic alliance. Fighting a war jointly; establishing a joint military command or alliance; conducting joint military maneuvers; establishing an economic common market; joining or organizing international alliances; or establishing a joint program to raise the global quality of life.

3. (31) Military, economic or strategic support. Selling nuclear power plants or materials; providing air, naval or land facilities for bases; giving technical or advisory military assistance; granting military aid; sharing highly advanced technology; intervening with military support at request of government; concluding military agreements; training military personnel; or joint programs and plans to initiate and pursue disarmament.

4. (27) Nonmilitary economic, technological or industrial agreement. Making loans or grants; agreeing to economic pacts; giving industrial, cultural or educational assistance; conducting trade agreements or granting most-favored-nation status; establishing common transportation or communication networks; selling surplus industrial/technological equipment; providing technical expertise; ceasing economic restrictions; repaying debts; selling nonmilitary goods; or giving disaster relief.

5. (14) Cultural or scientific agreement or other support (nonstrategic). Initiating diplomatic relations; establishing technological or scientific communications; proposing or offering economic or military aid; recognition of government; visit by head of state; opening borders; enacting or fulfilling friendship agreements; or conducting cultural or academic agreements or exchanges.

6. (10) Official verbal support of goals, values or regime. Official support of policy; upgrade of legation to embassy; reaffirming friendship; asking for help against third party; apologizing for unfavorable actions or statements; allowing entry of press correspondents; offering thanks for or requesting aid; or resuming broken diplomatic or other relations.

7. (6) Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions and mild verbal support. Meeting of high officials; conferring on problems of mutual interest; visit by lower officials for talks; issuing joint communiques; appointing ambassadors; announcing cease-fires; proposing talks; exchanging prisoners of war; requesting support for policy; or stating or explaining policy.

8. (1) Neutral or nonsignificant acts for the international situation. Rhetorical policy statements; or nonconsequential news items.

9. (-6) Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in interaction. Low-key objection to policies or behavior; communication of dissatisfaction through third party; failure to reach an agreement; refusal of protest note; denial of accusations; objection to explanation of goals or position; or request for change in policy.

10. (-16) Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction. Warning of retaliation for acts; making of threatening demands and accusations; condemning strongly specific actions or policies; denouncing leaders, system or ideology; postponing visits by heads of state; refusing participation in meetings or summits; leveling strong propaganda attacks; denying support; or blocking or vetoing policy actions or proposals in the United Nations or other international bodies.

11. (-29) Diplomatic/economic hostile actions. Increasing troop mobilization; boycotts; imposing economic sanctions; hindering movement on land, waterways or in the air; embargoing goods; refusing mutual trade rights; closing borders and blocking free communications; manipulating trade or currency to cause economic problems; halting aid; granting sanctuary to opposition leaders; mobilizing hostile demonstrations against target country; refusing to support foreign military allies; recalling ambassador for emergency consultations regarding target country; refusing visas to other nationals or restricting movement in country; expelling or arresting nationals or press people; spying on foreign government officials; or terminating major agreements.

12. (-44) Political/military hostile actions. Inciting riots or rebellions (providing training or financial aid for rebellions); encouraging guerrilla activities against target country; limited and sporadic terrorist actions; kidnapping or torturing foreign citizens or prisoners of war; giving sanctuary to terrorists; breaking diplomatic relations; attacking diplomats or embassies; expelling military advisers; executing alleged spies; or nationalizing companies without compensation.

13. (-50) Small-scale military acts. Limited air, sea or border skirmishes; border police acts; annexing territory already occupied; seizing material of target country; imposing blockades; assassinating leaders of target country; or material support of subversive activities against target country.

14. (-65) Limited war acts. Intermittent shelling or clashes; sporadic bombing of military or industrial areas; small-scale interception or sinking of ships; deployment of mines in territorial waters.

15. (-102) Extensive acts of war causing death, dislocation or high strategic costs.

*Numbers in parentheses are the weighted intensity scale assigned by Edward Azar to each category.

Sources: John Davies, The Global Event-Data System, Coders' Manual (College Park, Maryland: University of Maryland, 1998) (available at, and Edward Azar, The Codebook of the Conflict and Peace Data Bank (COPDAB) (College Park, Maryland: University of Maryland, 1982), p. 36.

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